Faculty Year Post title Journal PubMed Field PDF
Arnold 2020 Towards Heterogeneous Information Fusion: Bipartite Graph Convolutional Networks for In Silico Drug Repurposing Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB) Link Medical Informatics
Sankararaman 2020 Recovering signals of ghost archaic introgression in African populations Science Advances Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Zhou 2020 Rapid diagnosis and comprehensive bacteria profiling of sepsis based on cell-free DNA Journal of Translational Medicine Link Medical Informatics Download PDF
Zhou 2020 Rapid diagnosis and comprehensive bacteria profiling of sepsis based on cell-free DNA Journal of Translational Medicine Link Medical Informatics Download PDF
Pellegrini 2020 Interactions between core histone marks and DNA methyltransferases predict DNA methylation patterns observed in human cells and tissues Epigenetics Link Comp Genetics & Genomics
Hoffmann 2020 Gene Regulatory Strategies that Decode the Duration of NFkB Dynamics Contribute to LPS- versus TNF-Specific Gene Expression Cell Systems Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Lloyd-Smith 2020 Estimated effectiveness of symptom and risk screening to prevent the spread of COVID-19 eLife Link Medical Informatics Download PDF
Chou 2020 Diversity in Biology: definitions, quantification and models Physical Biology Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Hsu 2020 Discovering and interpreting transcriptomic drivers of imaging traits using neural networks Oxford Academic Link Medical Informatics
Sul 2020 Contribution of common and rare variants to bipolar disorder susceptibility in extended pedigrees from population isolates Translational Psychiatry Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Bui 2020 Biomedical Real-time Health Evaluation (BREATHE): Toward an mHealth informatics platform JAMIA Open Link Medical Informatics
Bell 2020 Association of a Care Bundle for Early Sepsis Management With Mortality Among Patients With Hospital-Onset or Community-Onset Sepsis JAMA Internal Medicine Link Medical Informatics
Lloyd-Smith 2020 Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1 New England Journal of Medicine Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Pellegrini 2020 ACTINN: automated identification of cell types in single cell RNA sequencing Bioinformatics Link Medical Informatics
Boutros 2020 A community effort to create standards for evaluating tumor subclonal reconstruction Nature Biotechnology Link Medical Informatics Download PDF
Li, JJ 2019 Word and sentence embedding tools to measure semantic similarity of Gene Ontology terms by their definitions Journal of Computational Biology Link Medical Informatics Download PDF
Geschwind 2019 Widespread RNA editing dysregulation in brains from autistic individuals Nature Neuroscience Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Xiao 2019 Widespread RNA Editing Dysregulation in Brains From Autistic Individuals Nature Neuroscience Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Bui 2019 Using sequential decision making to improve lung cancer screening performance IEEE Access Link Medical Informatics
Wang, S 2019 Trait-space patterning and the role of feedback in antigen-immunity coevolution coevolution Physical Review Research Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Pinter-Wollman 2019 The use of multilayer network analysis in animal behaviour Animal Behavior Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Boutros 2019 The Proteogenomic Landscape of Curable Prostate Cancer Cancel Cell Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Ernst 2019 Systematic discovery of conservation states for single-nucleotide annotation of the human genome Communications Biology Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Hoffmann 2019 Substrate complex competition – a regulatory motif that allows NFkB RelA to license but not amplify NFkB/RelA PNAS Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Savage 2019 Stressor interaction networks suggest antibiotic resistance co-opted from stress responses to temperature The ISME Journal Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Horvath 2019 Reversal of epigenetic aging and immunosenescent trends in humans Aging Cell Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Kruglyak 2019 Rare variants contribute disproportionately to quantitative trait variation in yeast eLIFE Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Li, JJ 2019 Quantitative principles of cis-translational control by general mRNA sequence features in eukaryotes Genome Biology Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Garud 2019 Population genetics in the Human Microbiome Trends in Genetics Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Graeber 2019 Pan-cancer Convergence to a Small-Cell Neuroendocrine Phenotype that Shares Susceptibilities with Hematological Malignancies Cancer Cell Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Boutros 2019 Molecular landmarks of tumor hypoxia across cancer types Nature Genetics Link Medical Informatics Download PDF
Halperin 2019 Modeling the temporal dynamics of the gut microbial community in adults and infants PLoS Computational Biology Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Lloyd-Smith 2019 Mechanistic dose-response modelling of animal challenge data shows that intact skin is a crucial barrier to leptospiral infection Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Li, JJ 2019 Matched Bipartite Block Model with Covariates Journal of Machine Learning Research Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Eskin 2019 Leveraging allelic imbalance to refine fine-mapping for eQTL studies PLoS Genetics Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Sul 2019 Interrogating the Genetic Determinants of Tourette’s Syndrome and Other Tic Disorders Through Genome-Wide Association Studies The American Journal of Psychiatry Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Geschwind 2019 Inherited and De Novo Genetic Risk for Autism Impacts Shared Networks Cell Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Hoffmann 2019 Identifying determinants of persistent MRSA bacteremia using mathematical modeling PLoS Comp Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Geschwind 2019 Human evolved regulatory elements modulate genes involved in cortical expansion and neurodevelopmental disease susceptibility Nature Communications Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Pellegrini 2019 Human epigenetic ageing is logarithmic with time across the entire lifespan Epigenetics Link Comp Genetics & Genomics
Kruglyak 2019 Highly parallel genome variant engineering with CRISPR-Cas9 Nature Genetics Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Boutros 2019 Genome-wide germline correlates of the epigenetic landscape of prostate cancer Nature Medicine Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Geschwind 2019 Genetic Control of Expression and Splicing in Developing Human Brain Informs Disease Mechanisms Cell Systems Link Comp Genetics & Genomics
Sul 2019 ForestQC: Quality control on genetic variants from next-generation sequencing data using random forest. PLoS Computational Biology Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Hsu 2019 External validation and recalibration of the Brock model to predict probability of cancer in pulmonary nodules using NLST data BMJ Journals Link Medical Informatics Download PDF
Wang, S 2019 Evolving generalists in switching rugged landscapes PLoS Computational Biology Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Garud 2019 Evolutionary dynamics of bacteria in the gut microbiome within and across hosts Plos Biology Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Li, JJ 2019 EpiAlign: an alignment-based bioinformatic tool for comparing chromatin state sequences Nucleic Acids Research Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Horvath 2019 DNA methylation GrimAge strongly predicts lifespan and healthspan Aging Cell Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Pellegrini 2019 DNA Methylation Changes More Slowly Than Physiological States in Response to Weight Loss in Genetically Diverse Mouse Strains Front Endocrinol Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Alber 2019 De Novo Structural Pattern Mining in Cellular Electron Cryotomograms Structure Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Halperin 2019 CONFINED: distinguishing biological from technical sources of variation by leveraging multiple methylation datasets Genome Biology Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Bell 2019 Clinical Characteristics of and Risk Factors for Chronic Kidney Disease Among Adults and Children: An Analysis of the CURE-CKD Registry JAMA Network Open Link Medical Informatics Download PDF
Savage 2019 Climate shapes and shifts functional biodiversity in forests worldwide PNAS Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Lloyd-Smith 2019 Childhood immune imprinting to influenza A shapes birth year-specific risk during seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 epidemics PLoS Pathogens Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Halperin 2019 Cell-type-specific resolution epigenetics without the need for cell sorting or single-cell biology Nature Communications Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Hsu 2019 An interpretable deep hierarchical semantic convolutional neural network for lung nodule malignancy classification Expert Systems with Applications Link Medical Informatics Download PDF
Halperin 2019 An automated machine learning-based model predicts postoperative mortality using readily-extractable preoperative electronic health record data BJA Link Comp Genetics & Genomics
Xiao 2019 Allele-specific Binding of RNA-binding Proteins Reveals Functional Genetic Variants in the RNA Nature Communications Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Li, JJ 2019 AIDE: annotation-assisted isoform discovery with high precision Genome Research Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Li, JJ 2019 A statistical simulator scDesign for rational scRNA-seq experimental design Bioinformatics Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Sankararaman 2019 A statistical model for reference-free inference of archaic local ancestry PLoS Genetics Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Geschwind 2019 A Single-Cell Transcriptomic Atlas of Human Neocortical Development during Mid-gestation Neuron Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Hoffmann 2019 A regulatory circuit controlling the Dynamics of NFkB cRel transitions B-cells from proliferation to plasma cell differentiation Immunity Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Arnold 2019 A Machine Learning Approach to Classifying Self-Reported Health Status in a cohort of Patients with Heart Disease using Activity Tracker Data IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics Link Medical Informatics
Arnold 2019 A Machine Learning Approach for Classifying Ischemic Stroke Onset Time from Imaging IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging Link Medical Informatics
Geschwind 2019 A genome-wide association study of shared risk across psychiatric disorders implicates gene regulation during fetal neurodevelopment Nature Neuroscience Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Pinter-Wollman 2018 The impact of the built environment on health behaviours and disease transmission in social systems Philosophical Transactions B Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Pinter-Wollman 2018 Social interactions shape individual and collective personality in social spiders Proceedings B Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Hsu 2018 Researchmaps.org for integrating and planning research PLoS One Link Medical Informatics Download PDF
Graeber 2018 Reprogramming normal human epithelial tissues to a common, lethal neuroendocrine cancer lineage Science Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Alber 2018 Producing genome structure populations with the dynamic and automated PGS software Nature Protocols Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Bell 2018 Primary Care Provider Adherence to an Alert for Intensification of Diabetes Blood Pressure Medications Before and After the Addition of a “Chart Closure” Hard Stop Journal of American Medical Informatics Association Link Medical Informatics Download PDF
Savage 2018 Prevalence and patterns of higher-order drug interactions in Escherichia coli NPJ Systems Biology and Applications Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Boutros 2018 Pathway-based subnetworks enable cross-disease biomarker discovery Nature Communications Link Medical Informatics Download PDF
Arnold 2018 Path R-CNN for Prostate Cancer Diagnosis and Gleason Grading of Histological Images IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging Link Medical Informatics Download PDF
Hoffmann 2018 Nongenetic origins of cell-to-cell variability in B lymphocyte proliferation PNAS Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Li, JJ 2018 Neyman-Pearson classification algorithms and NP receiver operating characteristics Science Advances Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Graeber 2018 Multi-stage differentiation defines melanoma subtypes with differential vulnerability to drug-induced iron-dependent oxidative stress Cancer Cell Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Li, JJ 2018 MSIQ: Joint modeling of multiple RNA-seq samples for accurate isoform quantification Annals of Applied Statistics Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Chou 2018 Modeling large fluctuations of thousands of clones during hematopoiesis: the role of stem cell self-renewal and bursty progenitor dynamics in rhesus macaque PLoS Computational Biology Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Li, JJ 2018 Modeling and analysis of RNA-seq data: a review from a statistical perspective Quantitative Biology Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Hoffmann 2018 Mathematical modeling identifies potential gene structure determinants of co-transcriptional control of alternative pre-mRNA splicing NAR Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Hsu 2018 Longitudinal patterns in clinical and imaging measurements predict residual survival in glioblastoma patients Scientific Reports Link Medical Informatics Download PDF
Pinter-Wollman 2018 Interdisciplinary approaches for uncovering the impacts of architecture on collective behaviour Philosophical Transactions B Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Bell 2018 Improving admission medication reconciliation with pharmacists or pharmacy technicians in the emergency department; a randomized controlled trial BMJ Quality and Safety Link Medical Informatics Download PDF
Horvath 2018 GWAS of epigenetic aging rates in blood reveals a critical role for TERT Nature Communications Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Kruglyak 2018 Genetics of trans-regulatory variation in gene expression eLIFE Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Jamshidi 2018 Functional interrogation of Plasmodium genus metabolism identifies species- and stage-specific differences in nutrient essentiality and drug targeting PLOS Computational Biology Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Chou 2018 Exact steady-state distributions of multispecies birth-death-immigration processes: effects of mutations and carrying capacity on diversity Journal of Statistical Physics Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Pellegrini 2018 Epigenome-wide association in adipose tissue from the METSIM cohort Human Molecular Genetics Link Comp Genetics & Genomics
Horvath 2018 DNA methylation-based biomarkers and the epigenetic clock theory of ageing Nature Reviews Genetics Link Comp Genetics & Genomics
Meyer 2018 Dissecting FcγR Regulation through a Multivalent Binding Model Cell Systems Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Zhou 2018 Detecting early-warning signals of influenza outbreak based on dynamic network marker Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine Link Medical Informatics Download PDF
Geschwind 2018 Comprehensive functional genomic resource and integrative model for the human brain Science Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Ernst 2018 ChromTime: modeling spatio-temporal dynamics of chromatin marks Genome Biology Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Bell 2018 Characteristics of the National Applicant Pool for Clinical Informatics Fellowships (2016-2017) Proceedings of the AMIA Annual Symposium Link Medical Informatics Download PDF
Zhou 2018 CancerDetector: ultrasensitive and non-invasive cancer detection at the resolution of individual reads using cell-free DNA methylation sequencing data Oxford Academic Link Medical Informatics Download PDF
Pinter-Wollman 2018 Can multilayer networks advance animal behavior research Trends in Ecololy and Evolution Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Arnold 2018 An EM-based Semi-supervised Deep Learning Approach for Semantic Segmentation of Histopathological Images from Radical Prostatectomies Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics Link Medical Informatics Download PDF
Li, JJ 2018 An accurate and robust imputation method scImpute for single-cell RNA-seq data Nature Communications Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Wang, S 2018 Active Tuning of Synaptic Patterns Enhances Immune Discrimination Physical Review Letters Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Pellegrini 2018 A multi-tissue full lifespan epigenetic clock for mice Aging Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Chou 2018 A Dynamical Bifurcation Model of Bipolar Disorder Based on Learned Expectation and Asymmetry in Mood Sensitivity Computational Psychiatry Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Li, JJ 2017 TROM: A Testing-Based Method for Finding Transcriptomic Similarity of Biological Samples Statistics in Biosciences Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Alber 2017 The three-dimensional genome organization of Drosophila melanogaster through data integration Genome Biology Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Jamshidi 2017 Systems biology analysis of drivers underlying hallmarks of cancer cell metabolism Scientific Reports Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Ernst 2017 Systematic Epigenomic Analysis Reveals Chromatin States Associated with Melanoma Progression Cell Reports Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Xiao 2017 Structure-mediated Modulation of mRNA Abundance by A-to-I Editing Nature Communications Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Graeber 2017 Recurrent patterns of DNA copy number alterations in tumors reflect metabolic selection pressures Molecular Systems Biology Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Li, JJ 2017 Quantitating translational control: mRNA abundance-dependent and independent contributions and the mRNA sequences that specify them Nucleic Acids Research Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Wang, S 2017 Optimal Sequential Immunization Can Focus Antibody Responses against Diversity Loss and Distraction PLoS Computational Biology Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Jamshidi 2017 Multiregional Radiogenomic Assessment of Prostate Microenvironments with Multiparametric MR Imaging and DNA Whole-Exome Sequencing of Prostate Glands with Adenocarcinoma Radiology Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Li, JJ 2017 Large-scale mapping of mammalian transcriptomes identifies conserved genes associated with different cell states Nucleic Acids Research Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Hoffmann 2017 Iterative modeling reveals sequential transcriptional control mechanisms Cell Systems Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Lloyd-Smith 2017 Detecting signals of chronic shedding to explain pathogen persistence: Leptospira interrogans in California sea lions as a case study Journal of Animal Ecology Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Li, JJ 2017 Correspondence of D. melanogaster and C. elegansdevelopmental stages revealed by alternative splicing characteristics of conserved exons BMC Genomics Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Ernst 2017 Cooperative Binding of Transcription Factors Orchestrates Reprogramming Cell Reports Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Zhou 2017 CancerLocator: non-invasive cancer diagnosis and tissue-of-origin prediction using methylation profiles of cell-free DNA Genome Biology Link Medical Informatics Download PDF
Kruglyak 2017 A maternal-effect selfish genetic element in Caenorhabditis elegans Science Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Kruglyak 2017 A genetic signature of the evolution of loss of flight in the Galapagos cormorant Science Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Meyer 2016 Systems biology approaches to measure and model phenotypic heterogeneity in cancer Cancer Research Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Meyer 2016 Reduced Proteolytic Shedding of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Is a Post-Translational Mechanism of Kinase Inhibitor Resistance Cancer Discovery Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Bui 2016 Prediction of lung cancer incidence on the LDCT arm of the National Lung Screening Trial: A dynamic Bayesian network Artif Intell Medicine Link Medical Informatics Download PDF
Lloyd-Smith 2016 Potent protection against H5N1 and H7N9 influenza via childhood hemagglutinin imprinting Science Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Alber 2016 Population-based 3D genome structure analysis reveals driving forces in spatial genome organization Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Li, JJ 2016 NMFP: a non-negative matrix factorization based preselection method to increase accuracy of identifying mRNA isoforms from RNA-seq data BMC Genomics Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Zhou 2016 Mining 3D genome structure populations identifies major factors governing the stability of regulatory communities Nature Communications Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Alber 2016 Mining 3D genome structure populations identifies major factors governing the stability of regulatory communities Nature Communications Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Meyer 2016 JNK Pathway Activation Modulates Acquired Resistance to EGFR/HER2-Targeted Therapies Cancer Research Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Sul 2016 Increasing generality and power of rare variant tests utilizing extended pedigrees AJHG Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Ernst 2016 Genome-scale high-resolution mapping of activating and repressive nucleotides in regulatory regions Nature Biotechnology Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Li, JJ 2016 Epigenome overlap measure (EPOM) for comparing tissue/cell types based on chromatin states BMC Genomics Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Garud 2016 Elevated linkage disequilibrium and signatures of soft sweeps are common in Drosophila melanogaster Genetics Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Savage 2016 Do Vascular Networks Branch Optimally or Randomly across Spatial Scales? PLOS Computational Biology Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Horvath 2016 An epigenetic clock analysis of race/ethnicity, sex, and coronary heart disease Genome Biology Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Xiao 2016 Alternative Splicing Modulated by Genetic Variants Demonstrates Accelerated Evolution Regulated by Highly Conserved Proteins Genome Research Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Chou 2016 A hierarchical kinetic theory of birth, death, and fission in age-structured interacting populations Journal of Statistical Physics Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Jamshidi 2015 The Radiogenomic Risk Score: Construction of a Prognostic Quantitative, Noninvasive Image-based Molecular Assay for Renal Cell Carcinoma Radiology Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Meyer 2015 The AXL Receptor is a Sensor of Ligand Spatial Heterogeneity Cell Systems Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Savage 2015 Testing Foundations of Biological Scaling Theory Using Automated Measurements of Vascular Networks PLoS Computational Biology Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Savage 2015 Scaling from traits to ecosystems: Developing a general Trait Driver Theory via integrating trait-based and metabolic scaling theories Advances in Ecological Research Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Jamshidi 2015 Personalized Whole-Cell Kinetic Models of Metabolism for Discovery in Genomics and Pharmacodynamics Cell Systems Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Wang, S 2015 Manipulating the Selection Forces during Affinity Maturation to Generate Cross-Reactive HIV Antibodies Cell Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Xiao 2015 Genome Sequence-Independent Identification of RNA Editing Sites Nature Methods Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Jamshidi 2015 Cell scale host-pathogen modeling: another branch in the evolution of constraint-based methods Frontiers in Microbiology Link Systems & Synthetic Biology Download PDF
Chou 2015 Bayesian Uncertainty Quantification for Bond Energies and Mobilities Using Path Integral Analysis Biophysical Journal Link Mathematical Biology Download PDF
Sul 2015 Accurate and fast multiple-testing correction in eQTL studies AJHG Link Comp Genetics & Genomics Download PDF
Bui 2013 Imaging-based observational data-bases for clinical problem solving: The role of informatics J Am Med Inform Assoc Link Medical Informatics Download PDF
Bui 2012 Context-based electronic health records: Towards patient-specific healthcare IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed Link Medical Informatics Download PDF